Stage sensitivity of medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs and embryos to permethrin.
The effects of exposure to permethrin on gametes, fertilization and embryonic development were examined in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Following range finding (25, 50, 100, 200 or 300 microg/l) and duration of exposure (0, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, or 240-h) assays, the relative sensitivity was studied when initiation of exposure to permethrin (100 microg/l, for 192-h) occurred at one of four different stages, i.e., unfertilized egg (0-h), late morula (5-h), early neurula (24-h), and early organogenesis (40-h). The later exposure interval proved the most sensitive. Also, differences were observed in rates of recovery in larvae initially affected following the earliest exposure treatment (0-h, gametes prior to fertilization). Permethrin (100 microg/l) did not affect fertilization success and no lethal effects were observed in embryos. Sublethal effects were primarily observed at hatch. Toxicity endpoints in larvae included: delayed swim bladder inflation; inability of hatchling to respond to stimulus; uncoordinated movements, myoskeletal defects and transient enlargement of gall bladder. These changes were characteristic for all hatchlings exposed to nominal concentrations of 50 microg/l. While certain of the above alterations were reversed within 72-h after hatching, lack of swim bladder inflation and inability to respond to stimuli were two features that persisted with significant incidences. Based on persistence of sublethal effects, results from this work indicate the importance of exposures to gametes and to embryos prior to water hardening. The approach taken herein may better reflect environmental risk conditions than assays limited to exposure of embryonated eggs.
González-Doncel, M; de la Peña, E; Barrueco, C; Hinton, DE
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