Joint acute toxicity of esfenvalerate and diazinon to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

Journal Article (Journal Article)

California (USA) agriculture employs pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides to control insects in orchards and other crops. Diazinon and esfenvalerate were selected for this study because of their application overlaps. Toxicological and biochemical responses of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed singly and in combinations to esfenvalerate and diazinon were determined. Exposures were 96-h static renewal tests that used standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute toxicity test methods. After pesticide exposures, larvae were evaluated for carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity, and histopathological effects. Carboxylesterase activity was examined because of its potential influence on the toxicity of both organophosphates and pyrethroids. In vivo studies demonstrated that diazinon significantly inhibited carboxylesterase activity at nominal water concentrations as low as 50 microg/L. However, esfenvalerate did not affect carboxylesterase activity at any concentration tested. Liver glycogen depletion was the only histopathological effect observed; this effect was demonstrated with the individual pesticides and pesticide combinations (i.e., mixtures). The combinations of diazinon and esfenvalerate causing acute toxicity to fathead minnow larvae appeared to be greater than additive (i.e., synergistic) in all three tests.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Denton, DL; Wheelock, CE; Murray, SA; Deanovic, LA; Hammock, BD; Hinton, DE

Published Date

  • February 2003

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 22 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 336 - 341

PubMed ID

  • 12558165

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-8618

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0730-7268

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/etc.5620220214


  • eng