Molecular cloning of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggshell zona radiata protein complementary DNA: mRNA expression in 17beta-estradiol- and nonylphenol-treated fish.
A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the eggshell zona radiata protein (RBTZR: AF407574) has been cloned from the liver of estradiol-17beta (E(2))-treated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A set of degenerate primers homologous to the highly conserved cysteine-rich region of the zona radiata protein gene from salmon, winter flounder, medaka and carp were used for the initial RT-PCR. The resulting PCR product was cloned, sequenced and identified as the Zrp gene fragment based on amino acid sequence similarities. Based on the Zrp sequence from the initial PCR, a pair of gene-sequence primers was designed for 3'- and 5'- random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Cloning and sequencing of RACE products showed a 1349-bp Zrp gene encoding a 403-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of approximately 45 kDa. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence reveals that RbtZR is similar to piscine and mammalian zona pellucida proteins. The RbtZR gene, together with the estrogen receptor (ER) and vitellogenin (Vtg) genes, was further characterized and comparatively studied for transcriptional and translational expression in xenoestrogen- (nonylphenol, NP) and E(2)-treated juvenile rainbow trout in a time-course experiment. Northern and slot blot analysis showed that the RbtZR mRNA was expressed, in parallel with the ER and Vtg mRNA, in both NP- and E(2)-treated juvenile rainbow trout. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibody raised against Atlantic salmon Zrp indicated the translational expression of RbtZR protein in blood plasma samples from NP- and E(2)-treated juvenile trout. The differential time-dependent transcriptional and translational expression and use of Zrp, ER and Vtg as sensitive biomarkers in environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupters in fish is discussed.
Arukwe, A; Kullman, SW; Berg, K; Goksøyr, A; Hinton, DE
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