Toxic responses of medaka, d-rR strain, to polychlorinated naphthalene mixtures after embryonic exposure by in ovo nanoinjection: A partial life- cycle assessment
Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are organic compounds with some chemical properties and uses similar to polychlorinated biphenyls. Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been detected in biota from certain aquatic environments. The toxicities of several PCN technical mixtures (Halowax) to medaka (Oryzias latipes) were determined by use of an embryo nanoinjection method. Medaka eggs (early gastrula) were injected with 0.5 nl of triolein (vehicle control) or 0.5 nl of four to five graded doses (0.3-30 ng/egg) of Halowax 1014, Halowax 1013, or Halowax 1051 in triolein. Following exposure, embryos developed, and fry were reared to sexual maturity (4 months), at which time they were euthanized. Responses were evaluated as early life stage (ELS) and early adult life stage (EALS) assessments. For ELS, lethality and sublethal alterations in embryos and larvae (<16 d old), such as craniofacial, cardiovascular, and myoskeletal deformities and abnormal or delayed hatch, were monitored for the first 9 d, and a dose severity index was computed. The EALS assessment examined the survival of 16-d-old larvae until early adulthood (123 ± 3 d old), including gonadosomatic index (GSI) and morphometry. Halowax 1014 was found to be the most toxic mixture (LD50 4.2 ng/egg), whereas Halowax 1013 and 1051 were significantly less toxic (LD50s could not be determined). The gonadosomatic index of females was significantly less in fish dosed with Halowax 1014 or 1051. The LD50 for medaka embryos nanoinjected with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is about 0.75 pg/egg. Thus, Halowax 1014 was 5,585-fold less potent than TCDD. For Halowax 1014, ELS assessments accurately predicted the results of EALS assessments.
Villalobos, SA; Papoulias, DM; Meadows, J; Blankenship, AL; Pastva, SD; Kannan, K; Hinton, DE; Tillitt, DE; Giesy, JP
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)