Allyl formate-induced hepatotoxicity in rainbow trout
Rainbow trout liver is tubular without apparent lobules. Hepatotoxins are often defined by the portion of the hepatic lobule affected. One of these, carbon tetrachloride, has been studied in trout and has produced no consistent pattern of toxicity similar to the centrilobular pattern seen in rodent liver. By contrast, allyl formate, a periportal necrotic agent in rodent liver, induced distinctive necrosis in trout liver. At 24 h, following oral administration of 100 μliter/kg allyl formate, light microscopy revealed pallor of hepatocytes, hemorrhage in parenchymal space, swollen and shrunken hepatocytes, hepatocellular lysis and nuclear changes signifying necrosis. Calcification and apparently increased collagen deposition were observed at 48 h near bile ducts. By 72 h, hepatocyte morphology suggested partial recovery. Electron microscopy confirmed and extended histologic observations and revealed destruction of sinusoidal endothelium, hepatocyte glycogen depletion and condensed mitochondria. Surviving hepatocytes appeared condensed and shrunken. Serum glutamate-pyruvic transaminase increased at 24 and 48 h and returned to normal by 72 h. Liver Na+ and K+ and serum bilirubin were also changed and correlated with observed morphological alterations. © 1988.
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