Individual-group discontinuity: The role of a consensus rule
The present experiment examined the conditions necessary for the creation of psychologically real groups (entitativity). Stated differently, the experiment examined the conditions required to make an aggregate of three individuals separately interact with another aggregate of three individuals in the competitive manner characteristic of the way in which a group of three individuals has been observed to interact with another group of three individuals. Interactions occurred between two aggregates of three individuals via 10 versions of a PDG matrix. In four of the five conditions each subject in one aggregate interacted with a single subject from the "opposing" aggregate. In the first, or interdependence, condition the three individuals in each aggregate were placed in separate rooms, although they did share their earnings. In the second, or contact, condition the three individuals were placed in the same room but not allowed to talk to each other. In the third, or discussion, condition the three individuals were required to discuss their separate PDG choices with each other. In the fourth, or consensus, condition the subjects were required to reach consensus regarding their separate PDG choices. In the fifth, or group-all, condition the subjects in each aggregate collectively interacted with the subjects in the opposing aggregate. The results indicated that the group-all and consensus conditions produced equivalently lower amounts of cooperativeness than the interdependence, contact, and discussion conditions. These results were interpreted as indicating that a consensus rule is necessary for the creation of entitativity. © 1988.
Insko, CA; Hoyle, RH; Pinkley, RL; Hong, GY; Slim, RM; Dalton, B; Lin, YHW; Ruffin, PP; Dardis, GJ; Bernthal, PR; Schopler, J
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