Translational physiology: porcine models of human coronary artery disease: implications for preclinical trials of therapeutic angiogenesis.
"Therapeutic angiogenesis" describes an emerging field of cardiovascular medicine whereby new blood vessels are induced to grow to supply oxygen and nutrients to ischemic cardiac or skeletal muscle. Various methods of producing therapeutic angiogenesis have been employed, including mechanical means, gene therapy, and the use of growth factors, among others. The use of appropriate large-animal models is essential if these therapies are to be critically evaluated in a preclinical setting before their use in humans, yet little has been written comparing the various available models. Over the past decade, swine have been increasingly used in studies of chronic ischemia because of their numerous similarities to humans, including minimal preexisting coronary collaterals as well as similar coronary anatomy and physiology. Consequently, this review describes the most commonly used swine models of chronic myocardial ischemia with special attention to regional myocardial blood flow and function and critically evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of each model in terms of utility for preclinical trials of angiogenic therapies.
Hughes, GC; Post, MJ; Simons, M; Annex, BH
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