Voreloxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, in relapsed/refractory solid tumors: a report on two dosing schedules.
PURPOSE: Voreloxin, a novel replication-dependent DNA-damaging agent, intercalates DNA and inhibits topoisomerase II. Voreloxin induces site-selective DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis. We report the phase 1 experience of voreloxin in patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors, including dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two dose-escalation studies evaluated voreloxin administered i.v. every 3 weeks (SPO-0001) or weekly for 3 weeks every 28 days (SPO-0002). In SPO-0001, patients were classified as heavily pretreated (HP) or minimally pretreated (MP) based on therapeutic history. RESULTS: In the SPO-0001 study, 41 patients (24 HP/17 MP) were treated in eight dose cohorts (3-75 mg/m(2)). At 60 mg/m(2), four HP patients experienced DLTs: grade 4 neutropenia (n = 3, one with fever) and grade 3 febrile neutropenia/pneumonia (n = 1). At 75 mg/m(2), two MP patients experienced DLTs: grade 4 neutropenia/thrombocytopenia (n = 1) or grade 2 oral thrush for >29 days (n = 1). Therefore, the MTD was 48 mg/m(2) (HP patients) and 60 mg/m(2) (MP patients). In the SPO-0002 study, 21 patients were treated in six dose cohorts (3-24 mg/m(2)). At 18 mg/m(2), two patients experienced DLTs: grade 3 neutropenia, one with pleural effusion (>14 days each). The MTD was 15 mg/m(2). Voreloxin exhibited low clearance (2 L/h/m(2)), a long terminal half-life (22 hours), and dose-proportional exposure. Overall, 31 of 62 patients had stable disease and 1 patient (ovarian cancer) had a partial response per Rustin criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Voreloxin showed an acceptable safety profile with clinical activity in patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors. The MTD was schedule-dependent. Voreloxin is currently in clinical studies of ovarian cancer and acute myeloid leukemia.
Advani, RH; Hurwitz, HI; Gordon, MS; Ebbinghaus, SW; Mendelson, DS; Wakelee, HA; Hoch, U; Silverman, JA; Havrilla, NA; Berman, CJ; Fox, JA; Allen, RS; Adelman, DC
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