Social inequality and alcohol consumption-abuse in Bahia, Brazil-- interactions of gender, ethnicity and social class.
This paper reports findings on Alcohol Consumption-Abuse (ACAb) in Bahia, Brazil, a research setting characterized by racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity.A household survey was conducted with a sample of 2,302 adults. ACAb was defined as daily intake of more than two units of beverage, with drunkenness, or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness, or any use of alcoholic beverages with frequent drunkenness, with failed attempts to stop drinking.The rate of 12-month prevalence was 7%, with an overall male: female ratio of 6:1. A positive association of ACAb prevalence with education and social class was found. Male gender and higher socio-economic status were associated with increased odds of ACAb. No relationship was found between ethnicity and ACAb. Stratified analysis yielded consistent gender effects, throughout all strata of independent variables. A strong interaction of gender (male) and social class (upper class) was found for Mulattos and Morenos (maximum Prevalence rate=9.04).Interaction patterns found defy simple generalizations based on class, ethnicity, and gender considered alone.
Almeida-Filho, N; Lessa, I; Magalhães, L; Araújo, MJ; Aquino, E; James, SA; Kawachi, I
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