Preemptive gastrostomy tube placement after Norwood operation.
OBJECTIVE: Because infants undergoing a Norwood operation have poor interstage weight gain, we hypothesized that preemptive gastrostomy tube (GT) placement would result in earlier discharge, improved growth, and higher survival to stage 2. STUDY DESIGN: Records of 74 neonates who underwent a Norwood operation were reviewed until stage 2 palliation. The patients were divided into conventional (n = 43) and preemptive GT groups (n = 31). Data included demographics, cardiac surgery, feeding strategy, length of hospitalization, and mortality. RESULTS: Transplant-free survival to stage 2 was significantly higher in the preemptive group, but there were no significant differences in survival to discharge after stage 1, length of hospitalization, and weight-for-age z-score at discharge and at stage 2 palliation. In the conventional group, 27 of 43 underwent GT placement, all via laparotomy, 23 with Nissen fundoplication. In the preemptive group, all underwent GT placement (21 laparoscopic, 10 laparotomy), 7 with Nissen fundoplication. A second gastric intervention was performed in 11 of 21 with laparoscopic GT (7 conversion to gastrojejunostomy tube, 4 Nissen fundoplication). CONCLUSION: Preemptive GT placement is associated with improved survival to stage 2 after a Norwood operation but not with shorter hospitalization or better growth. A thorough gastrointestinal evaluation must be performed before GT placement to avoid additional surgery.
Garcia, X; Jaquiss, RDB; Imamura, M; Swearingen, CJ; Dassinger, MS; Sachdeva, R
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