Early cavopulmonary anastomosis in very young infants after the Norwood procedure: impact on oxygenation, resource utilization, and mortality.
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of second-stage palliation after Norwood operations remains undefined. Advantages of early cavopulmonary anastomosis are early elimination of volume load and shortening the high-risk interstage period. Potential disadvantages include severe cyanosis, prolonged pleural drainage and hospitalization, and excess mortality. We reviewed our recent experience to evaluate the safety of early cavopulmonary anastomosis. METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive patients undergoing post-Norwood operation cavopulmonary anastomosis were divided into group I (cavopulmonary anastomosis at <4 months; n = 33) and group II (cavopulmonary anastomosis at >4 months; n = 52). Groups were compared for age; size; early and late mortality; preoperative, initial postoperative, and discharge oxygen saturation; and duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, pleural drainage, and hospitalization. RESULTS: Group I patients were younger than group II patients (94 +/- 21 days vs 165 +/- 44 days, respectively; P <.001) and smaller (4.8 +/- 0.8 kg vs 5.8 +/- 0.9 kg; P <.001). The preoperative oxygen saturation was not different (group I, 75% +/- 10%; group II, 78% +/- 8%; P =.142). The oxygen saturation was lower immediately after surgery in group I compared with group II (75% +/- 7% vs 81% +/- 7%, respectively; P <.001) but not by discharge (group I, 79% +/- 4%; group II, 80% +/- 4%). Younger patients were ventilated longer (62 +/- 86 hours vs 19 +/- 42 hours; P =.001), in the intensive care unit longer (130 +/- 111 hours vs 104 +/- 94 hours; P =.049), hospitalized longer (12.5 +/- 11.5 days vs 10.3 +/- 14.8 days; P =.012), and required longer pleural drainage (106 +/- 45 hours vs 104 +/- 93 hours; P =.046). Hospital survival was 100% in both groups. Actuarial survival to 12 months was 96% +/- 4% for group I and 96% +/- 3% for group II. CONCLUSIONS: Early cavopulmonary anastomosis after the Norwood operation is safe. Younger patients are more cyanotic initially after surgery and have a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, pleural drainage, intensive care unit stay, and hospitalization.
Jaquiss, RDB; Ghanayem, NS; Hoffman, GM; Fedderly, RT; Cava, JR; Mussatto, KA; Tweddell, JS
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