Growth factors for therapeutic angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral arterial disease is a common disease that has few treatment options. Angiogenesis is defined as the growth of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. Therapeutic angiogenesis is an investigational method that uses vascular growth to alleviate disorders of tissue ischemia, such as coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial disease. There have been tremendous changes in the field of therapeutic angiogenesis over the past decade, and there is much promise for the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial preclinical work with cytokine growth factor delivery resulted in a great deal of enthusiasm, but larger clinical studies have failed to achieve similar success. With an increased understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in angiogenesis, gene therapy and cell therapy have moved to the forefront of therapeutic angiogenesis. Novel therapies which target multiple different angiogenic pathways are also being developed and tested. SUMMARY: Therapeutic angiogenesis is an exciting field that continues to evolve. This review will focus on the different growth factors being used, their routes of delivery, the results of clinical trials, and some of the novel therapies being developed.
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