Control of IFN-alphaA by CD73: implications for mucosal inflammation.
Inflammatory diseases influence tissue metabolism, altering regulation of extracellular adenine nucleotides, with a resultant protective influence of adenosine. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is a central surface enzyme generating extracellular adenosine. Thus, we hypothesized that CD73 is protective in mucosal inflammation as modeled by trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) colitis. Initial studies revealed a >3-fold induction of CD73 mRNA levels after TNBS colitis. Additionally, the severity of colitis was increased, as determined by weight loss and colonic shortening, in cd73(-/-) mice relative to cd73(+/+) controls. Likewise, enteral administration of the selective CD73 inhibitor alpha,beta-methylene ADP to cd73(+/+) mice resulted in a similar increase in severity of TNBS colitis. Gene array profiling of cytokine mRNA expression, verified by real-time PCR, revealed a >90% down-regulation of IFN-alphaA in cd73(-/-) mice and alpha,beta-methylene ADP-treated cd73(+/+) mice, compared with cd73(+/+) mice. Exogenous administration of recombinant IFN-alphaA partially protected TNBS-treated cd73(-/-) mice. Cytokine profiling revealed similar increases in both IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA in colitic animals, independent of genotype. However, IL-10 mRNA increased in wild-type mice on day 3 after TNBS administration, whereas cd73(-/-) mice mounted no IL-10 response. This IL-10 response was restored in the cd73(-/-) mice by exogenous IFN-alphaA. Further cytokine profiling revealed that this IL-10 induction is preceded by a transient IFN-alphaA induction on day 2 after TNBS exposure. Together, these studies indicate a critical regulatory role for CD73-modulated IFNalphaA in the acute inflammatory phase of TNBS colitis, thereby implicating IFN-alphaA as a protective element of adenosine signaling during mucosal inflammation.
Louis, NA; Robinson, AM; MacManus, CF; Karhausen, J; Scully, M; Colgan, SP
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