Endothelial catabolism of extracellular adenosine during hypoxia: the role of surface adenosine deaminase and CD26.
Extracellular levels of adenosine increase during hypoxia. While acute increases in adenosine are important to counterbalance excessive inflammation or vascular leakage, chronically elevated adenosine levels may be toxic. Thus, we reasoned that clearance mechanisms might exist to offset deleterious influences of chronically elevated adenosine. Guided by microarray results revealing induction of endothelial adenosine deaminase (ADA) mRNA in hypoxia, we used in vitro and in vivo models of adenosine signaling, confirming induction of ADA protein and activity. Further studies in human endothelia revealed that ADA-complexing protein CD26 is coordinately induced by hypoxia, effectively localizing ADA activity at the endothelial cell surface. Moreover, ADA surface binding was effectively blocked with glycoprotein 120 (gp120) treatment, a protein known to specifically compete for ADA-CD26 binding. Functional studies of murine hypoxia revealed inhibition of ADA with deoxycoformycin (dCF) enhances protective responses mediated by adenosine (vascular leak and neutrophil accumulation). Analysis of plasma ADA activity in pediatric patients with chronic hypoxia undergoing cardiac surgery demonstrated a 4.1 +/- 0.6-fold increase in plasma ADA activity compared with controls. Taken together, these results reveal induction of ADA as innate metabolic adaptation to chronically elevated adenosine levels during hypoxia. In contrast, during acute hypoxia associated with vascular leakage and excessive inflammation, ADA inhibition may serve as therapeutic strategy.
Eltzschig, HK; Faigle, M; Knapp, S; Karhausen, J; Ibla, J; Rosenberger, P; Odegard, KC; Laussen, PC; Thompson, LF; Colgan, SP
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