Risperidone and cognitive function in children with disruptive behavior disorders.
BACKGROUND: Effects of risperidone on cognitive function in children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and subaverage intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. METHODS: Data from two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (n = 228) were combined, as were three 1-year, open-label studies (n = 688). Patients with DBDs and subaverage IQ, 5 to14 years, received placebo or risperidone .02 to .06 mg/kg/day. Cognitive measures included the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Verbal Learning Test for Children (VLT-C). Efficacy was assessed using the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF). Adverse events were collected via spontaneous report; sedation was assessed using visual analog scale. RESULTS: Improvements on the NCBRF Conduct Problem subscale were significantly greater for risperidone- versus placebo-treated patients (-15.8 vs. -6.4, p < .0001) in short-term studies; significant reductions were observed in long-term studies (-16.3, p < .0001). No overall decline and some significant improvement in attention (CPT) and memory (VLT-C) were noted regardless of treatment in short-term studies. VLT-C improved significantly (p < .0001) for both groups, with no difference between treatment groups. Improvements in memory (VLT-C) and attention (CPT) were noted in long-term studies. Somnolence/sedation did not affect cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive function was not altered by risperidone in short-term studies and was maintained or improved with one year of treatment in children with DBDs and subaverage IQ, potentially representing age-appropriate gains.
Pandina, GJ; Bilder, R; Harvey, PD; Keefe, RSE; Aman, MG; Gharabawi, G
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