Immunization with mutant p53- and K-ras-derived peptides in cancer patients: immune response and clinical outcome.
PURPOSE: To determine the ability to induce tumor-specific immunity with individual mutant K-ras-or p53-derived peptides and to monitor clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in varying stages of disease underwent genetic analysis for mutations in K-ras and p53. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled. Seventeen-mer peptides were custom synthesized to the corresponding mutation. Baseline immunity was assessed for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release from mutant peptide-primed lymphocytes. Patients' peripheral-blood mononuclear cells were pulsed with the corresponding peptide, irradiated, and applied intravenously. Patients were observed for CTL, IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL) -2, IL-5, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses, for treatment-related toxicity, and for tumor response. RESULTS: No toxicity was observed. Ten (26%) of 38 patients had detectable CTL against mutant p53 or K-ras, and two patients were positive for CTL at baseline. Positive IFN-gamma responses occurred in 16 patients (42%) after vaccination, whereas four patients had positive IFN-gamma reaction before vaccination. Of 29 patients with evident disease, five experienced a period of stable disease. Favorable prognostic markers were detectable CTL activity and a positive IFN-gamma reaction but not IL-5 release. Median survival times of 393 v 98 days for a positive versus negative CTL response (P = .04), respectively, and of 470 v 88 days for a positive versus negative IFN-gamma response (P = .02), respectively, were detected. CONCLUSION: Custom-made peptide vaccination is feasible without any toxicity. CTL and cytokine responses specific to a given mutation can be induced or enhanced with peptide vaccines. Cellular immunity to mutant p53 and K-ras oncopeptides is associated with longer survival.
Carbone, DP; Ciernik, IF; Kelley, MJ; Smith, MC; Nadaf, S; Kavanaugh, D; Maher, VE; Stipanov, M; Contois, D; Johnson, BE; Pendleton, CD; Seifert, B; Carter, C; Read, EJ; Greenblatt, J; Top, LE; Kelsey, MI; Minna, JD; Berzofsky, JA
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