Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for determining right ventricular stroke volume in an animal model of chronic right ventricular volume overload.
BACKGROUND: The lack of a suitable noninvasive method for assessing right ventricular (RV) volume and function has been a major deficiency of two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. The aim of our animal study was to test a new real-time three-dimensional (3D) echo imaging system for evaluating RV stroke volumes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three to 6 months before hemodynamic and 3D ultrasonic study, the pulmonary valve was excised from 6 sheep (31 to 59 kg) to induce RV volume overload. At the subsequent session, a total of 14 different steady-state hemodynamic conditions were studied. Electromagnetic (EM) flow probes were used for obtaining aortic and pulmonic flows. A unique phased-array volumetric 3D imaging system developed at the Duke University Center for Emerging Cardiovascular Technology was used for ultrasonic imaging. Real-time volumetric images of the RV were digitally stored, and RV stroke volumes were determined by use of parallel slices of the 3D RV data set and subtraction of end-systolic cavity volumes from end-diastolic cavity volumes. Multiple regression analyses showed a good correlation and agreement between the EM-obtained RV stroke volumes (range, 16 to 42 mL/beat) and those obtained by the new real-time 3D method (r=0.80; mean difference, -2.7+/-6.4 mL/beat). CONCLUSIONS: The real-time 3D system provided good estimation of strictly quantified reference RV stroke volumes, suggesting an important application of this new 3D method.
Shiota, T; Jones, M; Chikada, M; Fleishman, CE; Castellucci, JB; Cotter, B; DeMaria, AN; von Ramm, OT; Kisslo, J; Ryan, T; Sahn, DJ
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