Improved cardiac anthropomorphic phantom.
An improved cardiac sonographic phantom is described that simulates the anatomy of the human heart for applications as a low cost quality assurance and training tool in echocardiography. The major new feature in the phantom is the development of a polyurethane sponge left ventricle, which mimics the myocardium during sonographic imaging while undergoing hydraulic pumping. The left ventricle, including prosthetic mechanical mitral and aortic valves, is housed in an optically transparent Lexan chamber or in a tissue mimicking polyurethane rubber torso. Additional new features include a port for transesophageal imaging, and an adjustable calibrated stroke volume on the piston pump, which can serve as a standard for echocardiographic stroke volume measurement. B-scans of the phantom show excellent image quality in all three standard echocardiographic views as well as in transesophageal scanning.
Smith, SW; Combs, MP; Adams, DB; Kisslo, JA
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)