The use of intraoperative echo with Doppler color flow imaging to predict outcome after repair of congenital cardiac defects.
Surgical repair of congenital cardiac defects (CCD) has undergone a remarkable evolution in the past decade. Major defects are now often completely corrected in early infancy with continually improving rates of survival. It has become clear that the next major focus will be improvements in the long-term quality of life and this has promoted many innovations in surgical technique and approach. One advance is the use of intraoperative echo with Doppler color flow imaging (echo-DCFI) to evaluate the exactness of operative repair. Aside from anecdotal reports, very little information is available regarding the interpretation of images produced by this technology in the operating room. Furthermore there have been no studies addressing the predictive value of intraoperative echo-DCFI findings with respect to outcome for patients undergoing repair of CCD. The prospective data obtained by following the course of 273 patients receiving intraoperative echo-DCFI has been reviewed after repair of a variety of CCD (age range, 1 to 53 years; mean 5.3 years; smallest patient, 1.8 kg). Forty-seven patients (17%) had initially unacceptable results, by echo, at the completion of their repair. Eighteen of these patients (7% of entire series) had no clinical problems and the defects were discernible only by echo. Twenty-six patients with initially unacceptable results had their repairs revised in the operating room and left with an acceptable result by echo. Twenty-one patients were allowed to leave the operating room with echo-discernible defects. Follow-up of these patients demonstrated a significantly higher (p less than 0.006) rate of reoperation (42% vs. 3%) and of early death (29% vs. 10%) for those patients whose defects were left unrepaired compared to those whose problems were corrected before leaving the operating room. Sixty-eight patients (25%) had some alteration of ventricular function (compared to their prebypass evaluation) at the completion of their repair. Regardless of whether the dysfunction was limited to the right ventricle, left ventricle, or was biventricular, patients in this group had a significantly higher incidence (p less than 0.004) of early, but not late, death compared to patients without alteration of ventricular function (35% vs. 4%). Patients who left the operating room with no problems of concern by echo-DCFI had a greater than 90% likelihood of a long-term acceptable outcome compared to patients who had any problem of concern (residual defect, anatomic or technical imperfection, ventricular dysfunction, and so on) whose long-term likelihood of an acceptable outcome approached 50% (p less than 0.0125).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Ungerleider, RM; Greeley, WJ; Sheikh, KH; Kern, FH; Kisslo, JA; Sabiston, DC
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