Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates myocardial ischemic injury through JNK-dependent signaling pathway.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates embryonic development of many organ systems and defective BMP signaling has been implicated in adult disorders of many of these systems. However, its relevance in cardiac disease has not been reported. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Bmp4 activity promotes cellular apoptosis following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induced myocardial infarction (MI). Bmp4 heterozygous null mice (Bmp4(+/)(-)) demonstrated reduced infarct size, less myocardial apoptosis and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins relative to wild-type mice following I/R injury. This was associated with reduction in I/R induced BMP4 levels in the left ventricular infarcted region. Furthermore, treatment of neonatal cardiomyocytes with BMP4 resulted in time and dose-dependent increase in cellular apoptosis and activation of the JNK MAP kinase pathway. In contrast, while JNK activation was significantly attenuated in Bmp4(+/)(-) mice and following Smad1 inhibition in myocytes, inhibition of JNK with a specific inhibitory peptide, TAT-JBD(20,) blocked BMP4 induced apoptosis. In vivo treatment of mice with Noggin, an endogenous extracellular BMP antagonist, or dorsomorphin, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, reduced infarct size, and inhibited pro-apoptotic signaling accompanied by an inhibition of Smad1 phosphorylation and JNK activation. These studies identify a novel role for Bmp4 in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and illustrate the use of a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling for treatment of acute I/R injury.
Pachori, AS; Custer, L; Hansen, D; Clapp, S; Kemppa, E; Klingensmith, J
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