The effect of nitric oxide surface flux on the foreign body response to subcutaneous implants.
Although the release of nitric oxide (NO) from biomaterials has been shown to reduce the foreign body response (FBR), the optimal NO release kinetics and doses remain unknown. Herein, polyurethane-coated wire substrates with varying NO release properties were implanted into porcine subcutaneous tissue for 3, 7, 21 and 42 d. Histological analysis revealed that materials with short NO release durations (i.e., 24 h) were insufficient to reduce the collagen capsule thickness at 3 and 6 weeks, whereas implants with longer release durations (i.e., 3 and 14 d) and greater NO payloads significantly reduced the collagen encapsulation at both 3 and 6 weeks. The acute inflammatory response was mitigated most notably by systems with the longest duration and greatest dose of NO release, supporting the notion that these properties are most critical in circumventing the FBR for subcutaneous biomedical applications (e.g., glucose sensors).
Nichols, SP; Koh, A; Brown, NL; Rose, MB; Sun, B; Slomberg, DL; Riccio, DA; Klitzman, B; Schoenfisch, MH
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