Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide suppresses HIV infection in human primary macrophages through induction of innate immunity.


Journal Article

Gonorrhea often occurs as a coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a component of the gonococcal outer membrane that induces innate immunity through engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We investigated the effects that LOS from 5 different strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have on HIV infection and on HIV provirus in primary human macrophages. LOS-treated human primary macrophages developed resistance to new HIV infection as well as to HIV provirus. Gonococcal LOS from the 5 strains and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli showed no significant difference in their anti-HIV activities. Suppression of HIV provirus resulted from the induction of interferon (IFN)-beta and subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Neutralization of IFN-beta , but not IFN-alpha , via antibody significantly reduced the anti-HIV activity induced by LOS and LPS. We conclude that LOS expressed by various strains of N. gonorrhoeae induce specific innate immune responses through TLR4 signaling, resulting in anti-HIV activity in human primary macrophages in vitro.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Liu, X; Mosoian, A; Li-Yun Chang, T; Zerhouni-Layachi, B; Snyder, A; Jarvis, GA; Klotman, ME

Published Date

  • September 15, 2006

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 194 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 751 - 759

PubMed ID

  • 16941340

Pubmed Central ID

  • 16941340

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0022-1899

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1086/506360


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States