Identification of a novel cell attachment domain in the HIV-1 Tat protein and its 90-kDa cell surface binding protein.
The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is essential for viral gene expression and replication. Tat is taken up by cells and transactivates the HIV-LTR promoter in the cell nucleus. The present studies show that cells adhere to both synthetic and recombinant Tat, and, using synthetic peptides, we localize the binding site to a region spanning amino acid residues 49-57 (peptide Tat49-57). Tat49-57 also inhibited cell attachment to solid phase full-length Tat peptide and to recombinant Tat protein. Using Tat peptide affinity chromatography, we identified a 90-kDa cell surface protein that binds to Tat. The 90-kDa protein could be eluted from the Tat column using the Tat49-57 peptide. A 90-kDa cell surface Tat binding protein was also identified by coprecipitation with Tat after incubation with radiolabeled cell membrane preparations. Co-precipitation of the 90-kDa protein was inhibited by competition with a Tat49-65 peptide, but not with Tat55-86. Our findings suggest that cellular attachment to Tat is mediated through a 90-kDa cell surface protein that binds to a Tat domain between amino acids 49 and 57.
Weeks, BS; Desai, K; Loewenstein, PM; Klotman, ME; Klotman, PE; Green, M; Kleinman, HK
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