Abnormal angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus.
The adverse long-term effects of diabetes mellitus have been well described and involve many organ systems. While diabetes management has largely focused on control of hyperglycemia, the presence of abnormalities of angiogenesis may cause or contribute to many of the clinical manifestations of diabetes. When compared with non-diabetic subjects, diabetics demonstrate vascular abnormalities of the retina, kidneys, and fetus. Diabetics have impaired wound healing, increased risk of rejection of transplanted organs, and impaired formation of coronary collaterals. In each of these conditions, and possibly in diabetic neuropathy as well, abnormalities of angiogenesis can be implicated in the pathogenesis. A perplexing feature of the aberrant angiogenesis is that excessive and insufficient angiogenesis can occur in different organs in the same individual. In this review, the clinical features, molecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic options of abnormal angiogenesis in diabetes will be reviewed.
Martin, A; Komada, MR; Sane, DC
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