Human enteric microsomal CYP4F enzymes O-demethylate the antiparasitic prodrug pafuramidine.
CYP4F enzymes, including CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B, were recently shown to be the major enzymes catalyzing the initial oxidative O-demethylation of the antiparasitic prodrug pafuramidine (DB289) by human liver microsomes. As suggested by a low oral bioavailability, DB289 could undergo first-pass biotransformation in the intestine, as well as in the liver. Using human intestinal microsomes (HIM), we characterized the enteric enzymes that catalyze the initial O-demethylation of DB289 to the intermediate metabolite, M1. M1 formation in HIM was catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, as evidenced by potent inhibition by 1-aminobenzotriazole and the requirement for NADPH. Apparent K(m) and V(max) values ranged from 0.6 to 2.4 microM and from 0.02 to 0.89 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively (n = 9). Of the P450 chemical inhibitors evaluated, ketoconazole was the most potent, inhibiting M1 formation by 66%. Two inhibitors of P450-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism, HET0016 (N-hydroxy-N'-(4-n-butyl-2-methylphenyl)formamidine) and 17-octadecynoic acid, inhibited M1 formation in a concentration-dependent manner (up to 95%). Immunoinhibition with an antibody raised against CYP4F2 showed concentration-dependent inhibition of M1 formation (up to 92%), whereas antibodies against CYP3A4/5 and CYP2J2 had negligible to modest effects. M1 formation rates correlated strongly with arachidonic acid omega-hydroxylation rates (r(2) = 0.94, P < 0.0001, n = 12) in a panel of HIM that lacked detectable CYP4A11 protein expression. Quantitative Western blot analysis revealed appreciable CYP4F expression in these HIM, with a mean (range) of 7 (3-18) pmol/mg protein. We conclude that enteric CYP4F enzymes could play a role in the first-pass biotransformation of DB289 and other xenobiotics.
Wang, MZ; Wu, JQ; Bridges, AS; Zeldin, DC; Kornbluth, S; Tidwell, RR; Hall, JE; Paine, MF
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)