Viral vectored granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor inhibits vaccine protection in an SIV challenge model: protection correlates with neutralizing antibody.
In a previous vaccine study, we reported significant and apparently sterilizing immunity to high-dose, mucosal, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) quasi-species challenge. The vaccine consisted of vectors based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag and env genes, a boost with propagating replicon particles expressing the same SIV genes, and a second boost with VSV-based vectors. Concurrent with that published study we had a parallel group of macaques given the same doses of vaccine vectors, but in addition, we included a third VSV vector expressing rhesus macaque GM-CSF in the priming immunization only. We report here that addition of the vector expressing GM-CSF did not enhance CD8 T cell or antibody responses to SIV antigens, and almost completely abolished the vaccine protection against high-dose mucosal challenge with SIV. Expression of GM-CSF may have limited vector replication excessively in the macaque model. Our results suggest caution in the use of GM-CSF as a vaccine adjuvant, especially when expressed by a viral vector. Combining vaccine group animals from this study and the previous study we found that there was a marginal but significant positive correlation between the neutralizing antibody to a neutralization resistant SIV Env and protection from infection.
Schell, JB; Bahl, K; Rose, NF; Buonocore, L; Hunter, M; Marx, PA; LaBranche, CC; Montefiori, DC; Rose, JK
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