CD4-independent utilization of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor by HIV-1 and HIV-2.
HIV entry is mediated by an interaction between CD4 and members of the chemokine receptor family of proteins. It is likely that CD4 induces conformational changes in the viral envelope glycoproteins that facilitate a subsequent interaction with the chemokine receptor. To understand these events, variants of HIV-2 and HIV-1 have been derived that are able to interact directly with CXCR4 in the absence of CD4. One HIV-2 variant. termed HIV-2/vcp, has an expanded host range that includes CXCR4+/CD4- lymphoid and nonlymphoid cell lines. In contrast to T-tropic isolates of HIV-1, HIV-2/vcp was shown to induce > 95% downregulation of CXCR4 on chronically infected cells and was able to superinfect HIV-1-infected cells. A variant of HIV-1/IIIB termed HIV-1/IIIBx was also derived that is both replication competent and fusogenic for a CD4-negative subclone of SupT1 cells, termed BC7. Infection of BC7 cells by HIV-1/IIIBx was resistant to anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies but inhibited by the anti-CXCR4 mAb, 12G5. HIV-1/IIIBx was highly fusogenic on 3T3 cells expressing CXCR4 in the absence of CD4. In contrast to HIV-2/vcp, the host range of HIV-1/IIIBx was highly restricted and replication in several CD4+/CXCR4+ lymphoid cell lines was reduced compared to HIV-1/IIIB. In addition, HIV-1/IIIBx failed to downregulate CXCR4 on chronically infected cells. These studies indicate that HIV-1 and HIV-2 variants can be derived in vitro that utilize CXCR4 in the absence of CD4. Although the mechanism(s) for these changes remain unclear, possibilities include an increased avidity of the viral envelope glycoprotein for CXCR4 and/or the increased exposure of the chemokine receptor binding site. Further biochemical and molecular analysis of the envelope glycoproteins from these viruses should be helpful in addressing these and other possibilities.
Hoxie, JA; LaBranche, CC; Endres, MJ; Turner, JD; Berson, JF; Doms, RW; Matthews, TJ
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