Advances in the treatment of fragile X syndrome.
The FMR1 mutations can cause a variety of disabilities, including cognitive deficits, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and other socioemotional problems, in individuals with the full mutation form (fragile X syndrome) and distinct difficulties, including primary ovarian insufficiency, neuropathy and the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, in some older premutation carriers. Therefore, multigenerational family involvement is commonly encountered when a proband is identified with a FMR1 mutation. Studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 pathway antagonists in animal models of fragile X syndrome have demonstrated benefits in reducing seizures, improving behavior, and enhancing cognition. Trials of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists are beginning with individuals with fragile X syndrome. Targeted treatments, medical and behavioral interventions, genetic counseling, and family supports are reviewed here.
Hagerman, RJ; Berry-Kravis, E; Kaufmann, WE; Ono, MY; Tartaglia, N; Lachiewicz, A; Kronk, R; Delahunty, C; Hessl, D; Visootsak, J; Picker, J; Gane, L; Tranfaglia, M
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