Lymph node infarction: role of underlying malignancy, tumour proliferation fraction and vascular compromise--a study of 35 cases and a comprehensive review of the literature.
AIMS: To determine the roles of the presence of malignancy, tumour proliferation fraction, vascular compromise and therapeutic and diagnostic manipulations in lymph node infarction (LNI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five cases of LNI were identified over a 20-year period. Of the 35 patients, 31 (89%) had an underlying malignancy: 27 of the 31 (87%) were haematologic malignancies, the rest being metastatic carcinoma (two), melanoma, and seminoma. Of the four patients without evidence of malignancy, two were diagnosed with viral infection, one had LNI adjacent to a thrombosed pancreas graft, and one was lost to follow-up. Ki67 immunostaining in viable tumour demonstrated a range (5-60%) of proliferation fractions. A history of fine needle aspiration alone was present in seven of the 35 patients (20%), a history of chemotherapy alone in 11 (31%), and a history of both in two (5.7%). Factor VIII immunostaining highlighted thrombosed and recanalized vessels next to the infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Infarction of lymph nodes is associated with previous, concurrent or subsequent diagnosis of malignancy in the vast majority of cases. Chemotherapy or previous fine needle aspiration can precipitate infarction in some cases, but infarction may occur without such intervention, possibly because of an underlying subacute or chronic vascular compromise produced by vascular thrombosis.
Jiang, XS; West, DS; Lagoo, AS
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