Cost-effectiveness of dual-chamber pacing compared with ventricular pacing for sinus node dysfunction.
BACKGROUND: Compared with single-chamber ventricular pacing, dual-chamber pacing can reduce adverse events and, as a result, improve quality of life in patients paced for sick sinus syndrome. It is not clear, however, how these benefits compare with the increased cost of dual-chamber pacemakers. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 4-year data from a 2010-patient, randomized trial to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of dual-chamber pacing compared with ventricular pacing and then projected these findings over the patients' lifetimes by using a Markov model that was calibrated to the first 5 years of in-trial data. To assess the stability of the findings, we performed 1000 bootstrap analyses and multiple sensitivity analyses. During the first 4 years of the trial, dual-chamber pacemakers increased quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.013 year per subject at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 53,000 dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. Over a lifetime, dual-chamber pacing was projected to increase quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.14 year with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately 6800 dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. In bootstrap analyses, dual-chamber pacing was cost-effective in 91.9% of simulations at a threshold of 50,000 dollars per quality-adjusted year of life and in 93.2% of simulations at a threshold of 100,000 dollars. Its cost-effectiveness ratio was also below this threshold in numerous sensitivity analyses that varied key estimates. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with sick sinus syndrome requiring pacing, dual-chamber pacing increases quality-adjusted life expectancy at a cost that is generally considered acceptable.
Rinfret, S; Cohen, DJ; Lamas, GA; Fleischmann, KE; Weinstein, MC; Orav, J; Schron, E; Lee, KL; Goldman, L
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