Effect of cocaine, nomifensine, GBR 12909 and WIN 35428 on carbon fiber microelectrode sensitivity for voltammetric recording of dopamine.
Electrochemical measurements using voltammetry or amperometry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes have been used in vitro and in vivo to examine regulatory mechanisms for the central dopamine system. In many of these experiments, dopamine efflux concentrations under control conditions are determined followed by their alterations in response to a drug treatment. The present study demonstrates that some drugs can affect dopamine measurements, not only by their expected pharmacological action but also by directly altering the microelectrode responsivity. The commonly used reuptake inhibitors GBR 12909 (10 microM) and nomifensine (5 microM) drastically reduce electrode sensitivity and, in the case of nomifensine, increase the time to reach a plateau in response to dopamine boluses (i.e. reduced 'frequency response'). Cocaine (10 microM) and WIN 35428 (2 microM) have negligible effect on these indices. This decrease in sensitivity was found in both nafion and non-nafion coated electrodes. Further, the reduction in sensitivity seen in non-nafion coated electrodes was not prevented by increasing the reversal potential (from +1.0 to +1.3 V) and voltage scan rate (from 350 to 450 V/s). These data suggest that care must be taken when interpreting data from voltammetric or amporometric experiments using carbon electrodes where GBR 12909 or nomifensine are used, especially at high concentrations. Furthermore, wherever possible, direct effects of a drug on electrode sensitivity and frequency response should be determined.
Davidson, C; Ellinwood, EH; Douglas, SB; Lee, TH
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