Selective engagement of G protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) encodes distinct functions of biased ligands.
CCL19 and CCL21 are endogenous agonists for the seven-transmembrane receptor CCR7. They are equally active in promoting G protein stimulation and chemotaxis. Yet, we find that they result in striking differences in activation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/ss-arrestin system. CCL19 leads to robust CCR7 phosphorylation and beta-arrestin2 recruitment catalyzed by both GRK3 and GRK6 whereas CCL21 activates GRK6 alone. This differential GRK activation leads to distinct functional consequences. Although each ligand leads to beta-arrestin2 recruitment, only CCL19 leads to redistribution of beta-arrestin2-GFP into endocytic vesicles and classical receptor desensitization. In contrast, these agonists are both capable of signaling through GRK6 and beta-arrestin2 to ERK kinases. Thus, this mechanism for "ligand bias" whereby endogenous agonists activate different GRK isoforms leads to functionally distinct pools of beta-arrestin.
Zidar, DA; Violin, JD; Whalen, EJ; Lefkowitz, RJ
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