beta-Arrestin inhibits NF-kappaB activity by means of its interaction with the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha.
In addition to their roles in desensitization and signaling of seven-membrane-spanning receptors, beta-arrestins have been more recently implicated in regulating non-seven-membrane-spanning receptor pathways. By using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha, as a binding partner of beta-arrestin 1. Both beta-arrestin 1 and 2 interact with IkappaBalpha in transfected cells as assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments. Additionally, upstream kinases known to regulate the function of IkappaBalpha, such as IkappaB kinase alpha and beta and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, were also shown to interact with beta-arrestin. Overexpression of either beta-arrestin 1 or beta-arrestin 2 led to marked inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, as measured by reporter gene activity. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity was independent of the type of stimulus used for NF-kappaB activation. Conversely, suppression of beta-arrestin 1, but not beta-arrestin 2, expression by using RNA interference led to a 3-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor-stimulated NF-kappaB activity as measured by NF-kappaB mobility-shift analysis. These data uncover a role of beta-arrestins in the regulation of NF-kappaB-mediated gene regulation.
Witherow, DS; Garrison, TR; Miller, WE; Lefkowitz, RJ
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