G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and rat aorta. Regulation by angiotensin II and hypertension.
GRK5, a recently cloned member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family, has been shown to phosphorylate and participate in the desensitization of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1A (AT1A) receptors. In this study, the effect of angiotensin II on GRK5 expression was examined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and aortas of Ang II-infused hypertensive rats. In vascular smooth muscle cells, Ang II (100 nM) up-regulated GRK5 mRNA as early as 1 h, with a peak at 16 h. This up-regulation was dose- and calcium-dependent. The increase in GRK5 mRNA was reflected in a smaller increase in protein expression, which nonetheless had functional significance since AT1 receptor phosphorylation was increased and phospholipase C activation was decreased following prolonged incubation with Ang II. In aortas of Ang II-infused hypertensive rats, both GRK5 mRNA and protein levels increased approximately 3-fold compared with sham-operated rats at 5 and 7 days, respectively. This up-regulation was blocked either by losartan or by the nonspecific vasodilator hydralazine. Since a subpressor dose of Ang II did not increase GRK5 mRNA levels and norepinephrine infusion also increased GRK5 mRNA expression, we conclude that Ang II-induced GRK5 up-regulation in rat aortas may be due to hypertension per se. Hormone- and hemodynamic stress-induced GRK5 regulation may provide a novel molecular basis for long-term regulation of agonist sensitivity of vascular cells.
Ishizaka, N; Alexander, RW; Laursen, JB; Kai, H; Fukui, T; Oppermann, M; Lefkowitz, RJ; Lyons, PR; Griendling, KK
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