Mutational analysis of the pleckstrin homology domain of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. Differential effects on G beta gamma and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding.
The beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (G beta gamma) play a variety of roles in cellular signaling, one of which is membrane targeting of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK). This is accomplished via a physical interaction of G beta gamma and a domain within the carboxyl terminus of beta ARK which overlaps with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The PH domain of beta ARK not only binds G beta gamma but also interacts with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Based on previous mapping of the G beta gamma binding region of beta ARK, and conserved residues within the PH domain, we have constructed a series of mutants in the carboxyl terminus of beta ARK in order to determine important residues involved in G beta gamma and PIP2 binding. To examine the effects of mutations on G beta gamma binding, we employed three different methodologies: direct G beta gamma binding to GST fusion proteins; the ability of GST fusion proteins to inhibit G beta gamma-mediated beta ARK translocation to rhodopsin-enriched rod outer segments; and the ability of mutant peptides expressed in cells to inhibit G beta gamma-mediated inositol phosphate accumulation. Direct PIP2 binding was also assessed on mutant GST fusion proteins. Ala residue insertion following Trp643 completely abolished the ability of beta ARK to bind G beta gamma, suggesting that a proper alpha-helical conformation is necessary for the G beta gamma.beta ARK interaction. In contrast, this insertional mutation had no effect on PIP2 binding. Both G beta gamma binding and PIP2 binding were abolished following Ala replacement of Trp643, suggesting that this conserved residue within the last subdomain of the PH domain is crucial for both interactions. Other mutations also produced differential effects on the physical interactions of the beta ARK carboxyl terminus with G beta gamma and PIP2. These results suggest that the last PH subdomain and its neighboring sequences within the carboxyl terminus of beta ARK, including Trp643, Leu647, and residues Lys663-Arg669, are critical for G beta gamma binding while Trp643 and residues Asp635-Glu639 are important for the PH domain to form the correct structure for binding to PIP2.
Touhara, K; Koch, WJ; Hawes, BE; Lefkowitz, RJ
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