Activation, desensitization, and recycling of frog erythrocyte beta-adrenergic receptors. Differential perturbation by in situ trypsinization.
We have utilized limited in situ trypsinization of the adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptor of frog erythrocytes to probe the processes of receptor activation, desensitization, and recycling. Treatment of intact erythrocytes with trypsin (1 mg/ml) for 1 h at 20 degrees C converts all the receptor peptides (identified by photoaffinity labeling with p-azido-125I-benzylcarazolol) from a Mr approximately 58,000 to a Mr approximately 40,000 species. Nonetheless, the trypsinized beta-adrenergic receptors bind agonists and antagonists with unaltered affinity and with no change in the number of binding sites. Moreover, the ability of the proteolyzed receptors to interact with the nucleotide regulatory protein to form a high affinity guanine nucleotide-sensitive state and to activate adenylate cyclase were also unaltered. However, upon exposure of intact cells to the agonist isoproterenol, trypsinized beta-adrenergic receptors were more rapidly and more completely cleared from the plasma membranes ("down-regulated") than untrypsinized receptors. Whereas down-regulated receptors from nontrypsinized cells appear to recycle to the cell surface after removal of the agonist, internalized trypsinized beta-adrenergic receptors do not recycle to the plasma membrane and appear to be degraded within the cell. Moreover, when internalized receptors, recovered in a light vesicle fraction, were fused with a heterologous adenylate cyclase system, untreated but not trypsinized receptors reconstituted catecholamine stimulation of the enzyme. These data suggest that the beta-adrenergic receptor contains a trypsin-sensitive site which is exposed on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Proteolysis at this site releases a fragment which though not critically involved in either ligand binding or "effector coupling" might be important for anchoring the receptors in the plasma membrane. These data also suggest that in situ proteolysis of the receptors might serve as a physiological trigger for their internalization and degradation.
Strulovici, B; Lefkowitz, RJ
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