Surgeon-performed ultrasound is superior to 99Tc-sestamibi scanning to localize parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: results in 516 patients over 10 years.
BACKGROUND: Surgeon-performed cervical ultrasound (SUS) and 99Tc-sestamibi scanning (MIBI) are both useful in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We sought to determine the relative contributions of SUS and MIBI to accurately predict adenoma location. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a database review of 516 patients undergoing surgery for PHPT between 2001 and 2010. SUS was performed by 1 of 3 endocrine surgeons. MIBI used 2-hour delayed anterior planar and single-photon emission computerized tomography images. Directed parathyroidectomy was performed with extent of surgery governed by intraoperative parathyroid hormone decline of 50%. RESULTS: SUS accurately localized adenomas in 87% of patients (342/392), and MIBI correctly identified their locations in 76%, 383/503 (p < 0.001). In patients who underwent SUS first, MIBI provided no additional information in 92% (144/156). In patients who underwent MIBI first, 82% of the time (176/214) SUS was unnecessary (p = 0.015). In 32 patients SUS was falsely negative. The reason for these included gland location in either the deep tracheoesophageal groove (n = 9) or the thyrothymic ligament below the clavicle (n = 5), concurrent thyroid goiter (n = 4), or thyroid cancer (n = 1). In 13 cases, the adenoma was located in a normal ultrasound-accessible location but was missed by the preoperative exam. In the 32 ultrasound false-negative cases, MIBI scans were positive in 21 (66%). Of the 516 patients, 7.6% had multigland disease. Persistent disease occurred in 4 patients (1%) and recurrent disease occurred in 6 (1.2%). CONCLUSIONS: When performed by experienced surgeons, SUS is more accurate than MIBI for predicting the location of abnormal parathyroids in PHPT patients. For patients facing first-time surgery for PHPT, we now reserve MIBI for patients with unclear or negative SUS.
Untch, BR; Adam, MA; Scheri, RP; Bennett, KM; Dixit, D; Webb, C; Leight, GS; Olson, JA
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