Incidence and risk factors of stomal complications in patients undergoing cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion for bladder cancer.
PURPOSE: In this study we examined the incidence and associated factors of stomal complications in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion for bladder cancer. In addition, we evaluated the treatment and outcomes of surgical procedures in patients in whom stoma related complications developed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2005 a total of 137 patients underwent ileal conduit diversion after cystectomy or exploration for bladder cancer, had complete clinical followup and were followed for at least 12 months after surgery. The incidence of stomal complications (including parastomal hernia, stomal stenosis and stomal prolapse) is reported with correlations made to age, race, gender, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, preoperative laboratory values (creatinine, hematocrit), operative estimated blood loss and surgical complications. In addition, management of stomal complications is reported. RESULTS: Of the 137 patients 21 stomal complications (15.3%) occurred in 20 patients (14.6%). The most common complication was parastomal hernia in 19 patients (13.9 %). Stomal stenosis developed in 1 patient (0.7%) and stomal prolapse developed in 1 patient with a parastomal hernia (0.7%). There were no significant differences in gender, age, race, preoperative laboratory values or history of abdominal/pelvic radiation therapy between patients with or without complications. However, patients in whom complications developed had a significantly higher mean body mass index compared to those without complications (30.8 vs 26.5 kg/m(2), respectively, p = 0.012). Operative outcomes, extent of disease and length of postoperative followup were also similar between patients with or without stomal complications. In addition, there were no significant differences in lifestyle factors (eg smoking, alcohol abuse) in patients in whom complications developed. CONCLUSIONS: Stomal complications associated with ileal conduit urinary diversion are not uncommon and occur in almost 15% of patients, with the most common problem being parastomal hernia. Evaluation of possible risk factors demonstrates that obesity may be a contributing factor in the development of stomal complications, particularly in the elderly. Furthermore, our experience suggests that subsequent repairs of parastomal hernias are only moderately successful.
Kouba, E; Sands, M; Lentz, A; Wallen, E; Pruthi, RS
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