Nanoscale surfacing for regenerative medicine.
Cells in most tissues reside in microenvironment surrounded with specific three-dimensional features. The extracellular matrix or substratum with which cells interact often includes topography at the nanoscale. For example, the basement membrane of many tissues displays features of pores, fibers and ridges in the nanometer range. The nanoscale topography has significant effects on cellular behavior. Knowledge of the cell-substratum interactions is crucial to the understanding of many fundamental biological questions and to regenerative medicine. Rapid advances in nanotechnology enable cellular study on engineered nanoscale surfaces. Recent findings underscore the phenomenon that mammalian cells do respond to nanosized features on a synthetic surface. This review covers the commonly used techniques of engineering nanoscale surface and the techniques which have not been adapted but are of great potential in regenerative medicine, surveys the applications of nanoscale surface in regenerative medicine including vascular, bone, neural and stem cell tissue engineering, and discusses the possible mechanisms of cellular responses to nanoscale surface. A better understanding of the interactions between cells and nanoscale surfacing will help advance the field of regenerative medicine.
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