TRPV4 channels augment macrophage activation and ventilator-induced lung injury.
We have previously implicated transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels and alveolar macrophages in initiating the permeability increase in response to high peak inflation pressure (PIP) ventilation. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from TRPV4(-/-) and TRPV4(+/+) mice and instilled in the lungs of mice of the opposite genotype. Filtration coefficients (K(f)) measured in isolated perfused lungs after ventilation with successive 30-min periods of 9, 25, and 35 cmH(2)O PIP did not significantly increase in lungs from TRPV4(-/-) mice but increased >2.2-fold in TRPV4(+/+) lungs, TRPV4(+/+) lungs instilled with TRPV4(-/-) macrophages, and TRPV4(-/-) lungs instilled with TRPV4(+/+) macrophages after ventilation with 35 cmH(2)O PIP. Activation of TRPV4 with 4-alpha-phorbol didecanoate (4alphaPDD) significantly increased intracellular calcium, superoxide, and nitric oxide production in TRPV4(+/+) macrophages but not TRPV4(-/-) macrophages. Cross-sectional areas increased nearly 3-fold in TRPV4(+/+) macrophages compared with TRPV4(-/-) macrophages after 4alphaPDD. Immunohistochemistry staining of lung tissue for nitrotyrosine revealed increased amounts in high PIP ventilated TRPV4(+/+) lungs compared with low PIP ventilated TRPV4(+/+) or high PIP ventilated TRPV4(-/-) lungs. Thus TRPV4(+/+) macrophages restored susceptibility of TRPV4(-/-) lungs to mechanical injury. A TRPV4 agonist increased intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in harvested TRPV4(+/+) macrophages but not TRPV4(-/-) macrophages. K(f) increases correlated with tissue nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite production.
Hamanaka, K; Jian, M-Y; Townsley, MI; King, JA; Liedtke, W; Weber, DS; Eyal, FG; Clapp, MM; Parker, JC
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