Differential neurophysiological effects of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in non-human primates.
Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is under development as a means of reducing the side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) through enhanced control over patterns of seizure induction and spread. We previously reported that chronic treatment with MST resulted in less impairment in cognitive function than electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in a non-human primate model of convulsive therapy. Here we present quantitative analyses of ictal expression and post-ictal suppression following ECS, MST, and anesthesia-alone sham in the same model to test whether differential neurophysiological characteristics of the seizures could be identified. Rhesus monkeys received 4 weeks of daily treatment with ECS, MST, and anesthesia-alone sham in a counterbalanced order separated by a recovery period. Both ECS and MST were given bilaterally at 2.5 x seizure threshold. Neurophysiological characteristics were derived from two scalp EEG electrode recording sites during and immediately following the ictal period, and were compared to sham treatment. EEG power within four frequencies (delta, theta, alpha and beta) was calculated. Our results support earlier findings from intracerebral electrode recordings demonstrating that MST- and ECS- induced seizures elicit differential patterns of EEG activation. Specifically, we found that ECS shows significantly more marked ictal expression, and more intense post-ictal suppression than MST in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands (Ps < .05). However, the ECS and MST were indistinguishable in the delta frequency band during both ictal and post-ictal periods. These results demonstrate that magnetic seizure induction can result in seizures that differ in some neurophysiological respects compared with ECS, but that these modalities share some aspects of seizure expression. The clinical significance of these similarities and differences awaits clinical correlation.
Cycowicz, YM; Luber, B; Spellman, T; Lisanby, SH
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