Non-pharmacological treatment modalities in children and adolescents: A review of electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, and deep brain stimulation
A growing range of brain stimulation techniques (Electroconvulsive Therapy, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Magnetic Seizure Therapy, and Deep Brain Stimulation) are emerging as promising treatment modalities in a variety of medication resistant psychiatric disorders. Some of these techniques, alone or in combination with neuroimaging approaches (i.e, PET, SPECT, fMRI) have been successfully used to study brain functioning in health as well as in illness. Despite the great need for effective treatments for psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, these treatment modalities have been mostly studied in adults, and there are little data regarding their safety and efficacy in young patients. This article reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the use of brain stimulation techniques in childhood and adolescence and discusses possible future applications. © 2006 Giovanni Fioriti Editore s.r.l.
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