Neural basis for motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex of primates. II. Changes in the responses of horizontal gaze velocity Purkinje cells in the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus.
1. We made extracellular recordings from Purkinje cells in the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus of awake monkeys before and after motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). Three samples were recorded 1) after miniaturizing spectacles had reduced the gain of the VOR (eye speed divided by head speed) to 0.4; 2) when the gain of the VOR was near 1.0; and 3) after magnifying spectacles had increased the gain of the VOR to 1.6. 2. We studied Purkinje cells that showed stronger modulation of simple-spike firing rate during horizontal than during vertical pursuit. These cells corresponded to the previously identified "horizontal gaze velocity Purkinje cells" or HGVP-cells. During pursuit of smooth target motion with the head stationary, HGVP-cells showed strong modulation of firing rate with increases for ipsiversive eye motion (toward the side of recording). When the monkey canceled his VOR by tracking a target that moved exactly with him during sinusoidal head rotation in the horizontal plane, HGVP-cells again showed strong modulation of firing rate with increases for ipsiversive head motion. 3. The responses of HGVP-cells during pursuit with the head stationary and during cancellation of the VOR reveal separate components of firing rate related to eye and head velocity. We used these two behavioral conditions to test for effects of motor learning on the head and eye velocity components of the simple-spike firing of HGVP-cells. Our data confirm the previous observation that motor learning causes the sensitivity to head velocity to be larger when the gain of the VOR is high and smaller when the gain of the VOR is low. Thus we agree with the previous conclusion that changes in the vestibular sensitivity of HGVP-cells, measured during sinusoidal head motion at low frequencies, are in the wrong direction to cause changes in the gain of the VOR. 4. To determine whether the simple-spike output from the HGVP-cells plays a role in the VOR after motor learning, we recorded simple-spike firing during the VOR evoked by transient, rapid changes in head velocity in darkness. When the gain of the VOR was low, firing rate increased during the VOR evoked by ipsiversive head motion and decreased during the VOR evoked by contraversive head motion. When the gain of the VOR was high, the direction selectivity of the responses was reversed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Lisberger, SG; Pavelko, TA; Bronte-Stewart, HM; Stone, LS
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