Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses: clinical and pathological features, and response to combined-modality therapy.
PURPOSE: Lymphomas of the paranasal sinuses may have poorer prognoses compared with other extranodal lymphomas of the head and neck, and are not well defined as a particular clinicopathologic entity. The outcome of combined-modality therapy and central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis has not been fully determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our experience with 16 consecutive, carefully defined patients, all treated with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. RESULTS: There were 11 men and five women, mean age 52. All presented with local symptoms; 13 had stage I or II disease. Thirteen had diffuse large cell lymphoma, two diffuse mixed, and one small noncleaved. Phenotyping revealed 10 B-cell, four T-cell, and two T or natural killer (NK). Most received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy; the order of chemotherapy and radiotherapy varied. Twelve received CNS prophylaxis. Of 12 complete responses, six relapsed, all at distant sites, and two died during initial therapy. Five-year survival was 29%, and median survival 18 months. Four of 10 B-lineage patients were relapse-free at 4 years; all six T- or T/NK-lineage patients relapsed or were dead within 6 months. Tumors of T or NK lineage often expressed CD56 and showed evidence of Epstein-Barr viral infection; otherwise, pathological features were not predictive of lineage or outcome. Neither age nor lactate dehydrogenase predicted prognosis. No complete responder recurred in the CNS as site of first relapse. CONCLUSION: Despite localized stage at presentation, sinus lymphoma is an aggressive disease, characterized by distant relapse and early mortality. Combined-modality therapy with CNS prophylaxis improves outcome compared with radiotherapy alone; however, prognosis remains poor. Patients with T-lineage disease appear to have a particularly bad outcome. Autologous bone marrow transplantation should be evaluated as first-line therapy for those at high risk of relapse.
Hausdorff, J; Davis, E; Long, G; Hoppe, R; van der Pas, M; Lassman, C; Kamel, O; Jacobs, C
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