Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients with renal dysfunction.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease is becoming common among patients with acute coronary syndromes and is associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Often, patients with chronic kidney disease are excluded from clinical trials, so in clinical practice physicians may not have definitive evidence to support treatment decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes and that there is a stepwise increase in mortality with progressive decline of glomerular filtration rate. It has been demonstrated that the use of aggressive treatment strategies in these patients may be associated with improved outcome that is similar to, if not higher than, in those patients without renal disease. Yet, although critical for the correct dose adjustment of many antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapies, accurate renal function estimation often is not done. SUMMARY: Chronic kidney disease is common, and the stages of chronic kidney disease are strongly related to the risk of adverse in-hospital outcomes and to the use of evidence-based therapies. Many antithrombotic drugs are eliminated mainly by the kidneys, so an accurate assessment of renal function is required in all patients with acute coronary syndromes for a proper dose adjustment. There is a clear need for clinical trials in patients with moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction to further refine their optimal management in the setting of acute coronary syndromes.
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