In vivo assessment of left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction by digital video contrast angiography in the rat.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to develop a digital video contrast angiographic method for assessing global left ventricular function and volume in vivo in the rat and then to apply it to a study of ventricular remodelling after coronary occlusion, with and without reperfusion. METHODS: Digital contrast angiography was performed on 29 rats, including the following groups: sham operated (n = 11), non-transmural myocardial infarction produced by reperfusion (n = 8), and transmural infarction produced by permanent occlusion (n = 10). Under anaesthesia three weeks later, biplane fluoroscopic images were acquired following venous contrast injection. Levophase images were digitised, and left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volumes and ejection fractions were obtained using an area-length method. Left ventricular ejection fraction data also were calculated by videodensitometry from video density curves. RESULTS: Compared to the sham operated group, the reperfused group showed a significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction, at 53(SD 7) v 70(5)% (p < 0.01), and an increase in end diastolic volume. The permanent occlusion group showed a further decrease in the ejection fraction [40(8)%] and a further significant increase in end diastolic volume compared to the reperfused group (p < 0.01). Left ventricular ejection fraction correlated inversely with percent infarct size (r = 0.882) and showed a positive correlation with the spared epicardial area (r = 0.721). Most haemodynamic variables, including maximum left ventricular dP/dt, failed to discriminate between the groups. The methods showed reasonable accuracy when tested in vitro using contrast filled balloons. In vivo, the left ventricular ejection fraction calculated by densitometry showed adequate interobserver variability (2 SD +/- 8.5 percentage points), but the area-length method showed somewhat more scatter. CONCLUSIONS: Digital video contrast angiography is a feasible method for the assessing global left ventricular function in the rat and should be useful in other small animal models. Significant differences in left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions were detected between reperfused and permanent occlusion groups, whereas haemodynamic variables showed non-significant trends. Reperfusion after 45 min of occlusion caused sparing of the epicardium, prevented unfavourable remodelling, and improved the ejection fraction compared to permanent occlusion.
Ono, S; Bhargava, V; Ono, S; Mao, L; Hagan, G; Rockman, HA; Ross, J
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