Oxygen consumption and cardiovascular function in children during profound intraoperative normovolemic hemodilution
The clinically acceptable limit of acute normovolemic, normothermic hemodilution, a standard procedure in scoliosis surgery, is not yet well defined. Eight ASA class I patients undergoing idiopathic scoliosis correction were administered a standard anesthetic with 100% oxygen and controlled ventilation. Hemodilution was accomplished by exchanging whole blood for 5% albumin in 0.9% saline. Blood gases, acid-base status, and circulatory variables were recorded prior to and after hemodilution, and every 30 min throughout surgery. The impact of hemodilution was judged by mixed venous oxygen saturation which was maintained at ≥60%, while intravascular volume was maintained with the 5% albumin solution. Reinfusion of the autologous blood was completed by the end of surgery. In the eight controlled cases in which normovolemic hemodilution was studied, hemoglobin levels decreased from 10.0 ± 1.6 g/dL to 3.0 ± 0.8 g/dL. Mixed venous oxygensaturation decreased from 90.8% ± 5.4% to 72.3% ± 7.8%. Oxygen extraction ratio increased from 17.3% ± 6.2% to 44.4% ± 5.9%. Oxygen delivery decreased from 532.1 ± 138.1 mL · min-1 · m-2 to 260.2 ± 57.1 mL · min-2 · m-2, while global oxygen consumption did not decrease and plasma lactate did not appreciably increase. Central venous pressure increased and peripheral resistance decreased during hemodilution. Cardiac index increased, heart rate remained essentially constant, and left ventricular stroke work index did not decrease significantly. No patients suffered clinically adverse outcomes. Global oxygen transport and myocardial work can be maintained at extreme normovolemic anemia. Our evidence suggests that stages of normovolemic hemodilution more severe than previously reported may be clinically acceptable for young, healthy patients during normocarbic anesthesia.
Fontana, JL; Welborn, L; Mongan, PD; Sturm, P; Martin, G; Bunger, R
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