Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law


Journal Article

Plus factors are economic actions and outcomes, above and beyond parallel conduct by oligopolistic firms, that are largely inconsistent with unilateral conduct but largely consistent with explicitly coordinated action. Possible plus factors are typically enumerated without any attempt to distinguish them in terms of a meaningful economic categorization or in terms of their probative strength for inferring collusion. In this Article, we provide a taxonomy for plus factors as well as a methodology for ranking plus factors in terms of their strength for inferring explicit collusion, the strongest of which are referred to as "super plus factors".

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Kovacic, WE; Marshall, RC; Marx, LM; White, HL

Published Date

  • December 1, 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 110 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 393 - 436

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0026-2234

Citation Source

  • Scopus