Cervical dystonia is a common disorder with significant associated morbidity. Although limited benefit can be derived from oral pharmacologic agents, the advent of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection has provided a valuable tool in the treatment of this disorder. In order to provide effective treatment, the physician must have an intimate knowledge of the anatomy and function of the neck musculature. Novel BoNT formulations, even of the same serotype, are not equivalent and thus require careful dose titration. Formulation improvements may result in reduced immunoresistance. In patients labeled as treatment resistant to BoNT, careful electromyographic reassessment of select muscles for injection will frequently result in improved clinical benefit. © 2009 Future Medicine Ltd.
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