Nonsurgical extracardiac vascular shunts in the thorax: clinical and imaging characteristics.
Extracardiac nonsurgical vascular shunts in the thorax are a group of well-recognized heterogeneous conditions, frequently symptomatic, in which there is diversion of blood flow from one vessel to another or from a vessel to a cardiac chamber. The authors describe and classify many of these nonsurgical extracardiac shunts or fistulas according to their source and endpoint (eg, systemic-to-systemic, systemic-to-pulmonic, pulmonic-to-systemic, and pulmonic-to-pulmonic) and to whether the oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated systemic venous flow (left-to-right shunts), deoxygenated blood bypasses the pulmonary capillary bed (right-to-left shunts), or oxygenated blood recirculates (left-to-left shunts). Clinical manifestations and imaging appearances of these conditions are highlighted.
Martinez-Jimenez, S; Heyneman, LE; McAdams, HP; Jasinowodolinski, D; Rossi, SE; Restrepo, CS; Washington, L
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